Applied Mathematicsematics

Henry Beadnell's A guide to typography,: In two parts, literary and PDF

By Henry Beadnell

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Additional info for A guide to typography,: In two parts, literary and practical; or, The reader's handbook and the compositor's vade-mecum

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Mean spectral distribution ∆n/∆E of secondary electrons produced by 10 keV or 100 keV photons in water in the first photon interaction as a function of electron energy E n/E in keV–1 10 keV 100 keV E/keV To give an impression of the development of the secondary electron distribution with increasing value of the interaction number j of photons, Figure 10 shows ∆n/∆E produced by 100 keV photons at different values of j [11]. The very complex structure of electron production is obvious. But all interaction points have in common that the spectral electron distribution at any interaction point is composed of two components, a first one at lower energies, which is mainly caused by energy transfer to Compton electrons (in part after multiple photon scattering), and a second one which is caused by photoelectric absorption of multiply scattered Compton photons.

Nahum, “Bragg-Gray Theory and Ion Chamber Dosimetry for Photon Beams”, Phys. Med. , 36, 413-428 (1991). , “Perturbation Effects in Dosimetry: Part I. Kilovoltage X-rays and Electrons”, Phys. Med. , 41, 1531-1580 (1996). V. H. Attix, “A Theory of Cavity Ionization”, Radiation. Research, 3, 239-254 (1995). , “Water/Air Mass Stopping-power Ratios for Megavoltage Photon and Electron Beams”, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 23, 24-38 (1978). M. R. Nelson, A. E. O. , New York, Plenum, pp. 485-501 (1988).

Movement of 100 keV photons in a water cylinder in the case of perpendicular incidence along the phantom’s main axis Figure 3. Tracks of secondary electrons liberated in water by the 100 keV photons of Figure 2 Figure 4. Mean free interaction lengths λν of photons at energy T in water, in comparison with the continuous-slowing-down range Rcsda of electrons at the same energy 40 greater than the electron range by a factor of up to 103. In view of this fact, a photon track can be assumed as a collection of single electron tracks the starting points of which are distributed over distances that are large as compared with the mean photon interaction length.

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A guide to typography,: In two parts, literary and practical; or, The reader's handbook and the compositor's vade-mecum by Henry Beadnell


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