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In solutions, the trans/gauche ratio is influenced by the’medium. Good solvents produce higher proportions of the trans isomer, and hence a further loosening of the coils. 5. Conformation of the molecules 57 For a mathematical description of the randomly coiled arrangement, a macromolecule of polymerization degree P can be replaced by a model consisting of Z segments of length b,. This segment model has to satisfy the following conditions: - Its straightened length Z * b, must be equal to the length of the straightened molecule, P * Ieff.

End groups and chemically modified chain units. Generally the end groups can be neglected because they have little influence. However, the degree of branching can be determined from the number of end groups per macromolecule. , in connection with graft reactions, where it has to be clarified whether or not the existing chains have a certain end group. If the end group in question is a relatively polar group added to non-polar molecules, then this question can readily be answered by means of adsorption chromatography.

2. 3. The formation of bands standard deviation an, because for each part of the sample the process fully correst>onds to the first stage from zero to n. The sum of this large number of distribution curves yields the band of the total substance at the point 2n with the standard deviation aZn. As the chromatographic transport over the distance 0 + n and that over n + 2n are independent of each other, the variance, dn,at the point 2n can be calculated from the variances obtained after each distance: (3-1 I ) From this it follows that: 62n = a” fi (3-12) 0.

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