By Pukh Raj Rakhecha, Vijay P. Singh
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Extra info for Applied Hydrometeorology
N2O in the atmosphere absorbs terrestrial radiation and thus contributes to the warming of the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). 3 percent in atmospheric concentrations would contribute about 5% to the supposed green house warming. N2O is also a destroyer of ozone. It has been estimated that doubling the concentration of N2O in the atmosphere would result in a 10% decrease in the ozone layer and this would increase the UV radiation reaching the earth by 20%. Water vapor is an important constituent of the atmosphere whose proportion is highly variable in space and time.
Since the air is compressible, the parcel will expand and cool at the dry adiabatic lapse rate gd (10°C/km). The temperature (TB) of the displaced air parcel at the level BB will be TB = T– gd dz. Assuming that the environmental lapse rate is g, then the environmental temperature T B¢ at the level BB will be T B¢ = T – gdz. Fig. 4. Vertical atmospheric column. , g > gd, the air parcel is warmer and less dense than the environmental air. Hence, the air parcel will rise further. This shows that when the atmospheric lapse rate (g) is greater than the dry adiabatic lapse rate (gd), the atmosphere is said to be in a state of unstable equilibrium.
It has been found that the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is currently rising from fossil fuel burning and land use change (IPCC, 2001). CO2 significantly absorbs long wave terrestrial radiation and any increase in the total amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will promote global warming and will have severe The Atmosphere 27 environmental repercussions. 5% per annum. At this rate the concentration of atmospheric CO2 will double by the end of the 21st century. , 2001). This rise in the mean global temperature will cause changes in temperature regimes and a shift in precipitation patterns as well on the earth.
Applied Hydrometeorology by Pukh Raj Rakhecha, Vijay P. Singh